The land of ancient Israel was divided into 11 sections corresponding with 11 of the 12 tribes, which are based on the 12 sons of Jacob. There is an inconsistency, though, since one of the sons/tribes was not assigned land, yet there are still 12 tribes.
There is some who believe that Jesus chose to have 12 disciples to pay homage to the 12 tribes of Israel.
The Eastern Tribes
The Northern Tribes
The Southern Tribes
The Western Tribes